ugc net psychology syllabus


Code No. 04


1. Emergence of Psychology
  • Psychological thought in some major Eastern Systems: Bhagavad Gita, Buddhism, Sufism and Integral Yoga. Academic psychology in India: Preindependence era; post-independence era; 1970s: The move to addressing social issues; 1980s: Indigenization; 1990s: Paradigmatic concerns, disciplinary identity crisis; 2000s: Emergence of Indian psychology in academia. Issues: The colonial encounter; Post colonialism and psychology; Lack of distinct disciplinary identity.

  • Western: Greek heritage, medieval period and modern period. Structuralism, Functionalism, Psychoanalytical, Gestalt, Behaviorism, HumanisticExistential, Transpersonal, Cognitive revolution, Multiculturalism. Four founding paths of academic psychology - Wundt, Freud, James, Dilthey. Issues: Crisis in psychology due to strict adherence to experimentalanalytical paradigm (logical empiricism). Indic influences on modern psychology.

  • Essential aspects of knowledge paradigms: Ontology, epistemology, and methodology. Paradigms of Western Psychology: Positivism, Post-Positivism, Critical perspective, Social Constructionism, Existential Phenomenology, and Co-operative Enquiry. Paradigmatic Controversies. Significant Indian paradigms on psychological knowledge: Yoga, Bhagavad Gita, Buddhism, Sufism, and Integral Yoga. Science and spirituality (avidya and vidya). The primacy of self-knowledge in Indian psychology.

2. Research Methodology and Statistics
  • Research: Meaning, Purpose, and Dimensions.

  • Research problems, Variables and Operational Definitions, Hypothesis, Sampling.

  • Ethics in conducting and reporting research

  • Paradigms of research: Quantitative, Qualitative, Mixed methods approach Methods of research: Observation, Survey [Interview, Questionnaires], Experimental, Quasi-experimental, Field studies, Cross-Cultural Studies, Phenomenology, Grounded theory, Focus groups, Narratives, Case studies, Ethnography

  • Statistics in Psychology: Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion. Normal Probability Curve. Parametric [t-test] and Non-parametric tests [Sign Test, Wilcoxon Signed rank test, Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Friedman]. Power analysis. Effect size.

  • Correlational Analysis: Correlation [Product Moment, Rank Order], Partial correlation, multiple correlation.

  • Special Correlation Methods: Biserial, Point biserial, tetrachoric, phi coefficient.

  • Regression: Simple linear regression, Multiple regression.

  • Factor analysis: Assumptions, Methods, Rotation and Interpretation.

  • Experimental Designs: ANOVA [One-way, Factorial], Randomized Block Designs, Repeated Measures Design, Latin Square, Cohort studies, Time series, MANOVA, ANCOVA. Single-subject designs.

3. Psychological testing
  • Types of tests

  • Test construction: Item writing, item analysis

  • Test standardization: Reliability, validity and Norms

  • Areas of testing: Intelligence, creativity, neuropsychological tests, aptitude, Personality assessment, interest inventories

  • Attitude scales – Semantic differential, Staples, Likert scale. Computer-based psychological testing

  • Applications of psychological testing in various settings: Clinical, Organizational and business, Education, Counseling, Military. Career guidance.

4. Biological basis of behavior
  • Sensory systems: General and specific sensations, receptors and processes

  • Neurons: Structure, functions, types, neural impulse, synaptic transmission. Neurotransmitters.

  • The Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems – Structure and functions. Neuroplasticity.

  • Methods of Physiological Psychology: Invasive methods – Anatomical methods, degeneration techniques, lesion techniques, chemical methods, microelectrode studies. Non-invasive methods – EEG, Scanning methods.

  • Muscular and Glandular system: Types and functions Biological basis of Motivation: Hunger, Thirst, Sleep and Sex. Biological basis of emotion: The Limbic system, Hormonal regulation of behavior. Genetics and behavior: Chromosomal anomalies; Nature-Nurture controversy [Twin studies and adoption studies]

5. Attention, Perception, Learning, Memory and Forgetting
  • Attention: Forms of attention, Models of attention

  • Perception: Approaches to the Study of Perception: Gestalt and physiological approaches Perceptual Organization: Gestalt, Figure and Ground, Law of Organization Perceptual Constancy: Size, Shape, and Color; Illusions Perception of Form, Depth and Movement Role of motivation and learning in perception

  • Signal detection theory: Assumptions and applications Subliminal perception and related factors, information processing approach to perception, culture and perception, perceptual styles, Pattern recognition, Ecological perspective on perception.

  • Learning Process: Fundamental theories: Thorndike, Guthrie, Hull Classical Conditioning: Procedure, phenomena and related issues Instrumental learning: Phenomena, Paradigms and theoretical issues; Reinforcement: Basic variables and schedules; Behaviour modification and its applications Cognitive approaches in learning: Latent learning, observational learning. Verbal learning and Discrimination learning Recent trends in learning: Neurophysiology of learning

  • Memory and Forgetting Memory processes: Encoding, Storage, Retrieval Stages of memory: Sensory memory, Short-term memory (Working memory), Long-term Memory (Declarative – Episodic and Semantic; Procedural)

  • Theories of Forgetting: Interference, Retrieval Failure, Decay, Motivated forgetting

6. Thinking, Intelligence and Creativity
  • Theoretical perspectives on thought processes: Associationism, Gestalt, Information processing, Feature integration model Concept formation: Rules, Types, and Strategies; Role of concepts in thinking Types of Reasoning Language and thought

  • Problem solving: Type, Strategies, and Obstacles Decision-making: Types and models

  • Metacognition: Metacognitive knowledge and Metacognitive regulation

  • Intelligence: Spearman; Thurstone; Jensen; Cattell; Gardner; Stenberg; Goleman; Das, Kar & Parrila

  • Creativity: Torrance, Getzels & Jackson, Guilford, Wallach & Kogan Relationship between Intelligence and Creativity

7. Personality, Motivation, emotion, stress and coping
  • Determinants of personality: Biological and socio-cultural Approaches to the study of personality: Psychoanalytical, Neo-Freudian, Social learning, Trait and Type, Cognitive, Humanistic, Existential, Transpersonal psychology. Other theories: Rotter's Locus of Control, Seligman's Explanatory styles, Kohlberg’s theory of Moral development.

  • Basic motivational concepts: Instincts, Needs, Drives, Arousal, Incentives, Motivational Cycle. Approaches to the study of motivation: Psychoanalytical, Ethological, S-R Cognitive, Humanistic

  • Exploratory behavior and curiosity Zuckerman's Sensation seeking Achievement, Affiliation and Power Motivational Competence Self-regulation Flow

  • Emotions: Physiological correlates Theories of emotions: James-Lange, Canon-Bard, Schachter and Singer, Lazarus, Lindsley

  • Emotion regulation

  • Conflicts: Sources and types Stress and Coping: Concept, Models, Type A, B, C, D behaviors, Stress management strategies [Biofeedback, Music therapy, Breathing exercises, Progressive Muscular Relaxation, Guided Imagery, Mindfulness, Meditation, Yogasana, Stress Inoculation Training].

8. Social Psychology
  • Nature, scope and history of social psychology

  • Traditional theoretical perspectives: Field theory, Cognitive Dissonance, Sociobiology, Psychodynamic Approaches, Social Cognition.

  • Social perception [Communication, Attributions]; attitude and its change within cultural context; prosocial behavior

  • Group and Social influence [Social Facilitation; Social loafing]; Social influence [Conformity, Peer Pressure, Persuasion, Compliance, Obedience, Social Power, Reactance]. Aggression. Group dynamics, leadership style and effectiveness. Theories of intergroup relations [Minimal Group Experiment and Social Identity Theory, Relative Deprivation Theory, Realistic Conflict Theory, Balance Theories, Equity Theory, Social Exchange Theory]

  • Applied social psychology: Health, Environment and Law; Personal space, crowding, and territoriality.

9. Human Development and Interventions
  • Developmental processes: Nature, Principles, Factors in development, Stages of Development. Successful aging. Theories of development: Psychoanalytical, Behavioristic, and Cognitive Various aspects of development: Sensory-motor, cognitive, language, emotional, social and moral.

  • Psychopathology: Concept, Mental Status Examination, Classification, Causes

  • Psychotherapies: Psychoanalysis, Person-centered, Gestalt, Existential, Acceptance Commitment Therapy, Behavior therapy, REBT, CBT, MBCT, Play therapy, Positive psychotherapy, Transactional Analysis, Dialectic behavior therapy, Art therapy, Performing Art Therapy, Family therapy.

  • Applications of theories of motivation and learning in School Factors in educational achievement Teacher effectiveness

  • Guidance in schools: Needs, organizational set up and techniques

  • Counselling: Process, skills, and techniques

10. Emerging Areas
  • Issues of Gender, Poverty, Disability, and Migration: Cultural bias and discrimination. Stigma, Marginalization, and Social Suffering; Child Abuse and Domestic violence.

  • Peace psychology: Violence, non-violence, conflict resolution at macro level, role of media in conflict resolution.

  • Wellbeing and self-growth: Types of wellbeing [Hedonic and Eudemonic], Character strengths, Resilience and Post-Traumatic Growth.

  • Health: Health promoting and health compromising behaviors, Life style and Chronic diseases [Diabetes, Hypertension, Coronary Heart Disease], Psychoneuroimmunology [Cancer, HIV/AIDS]

  • Psychology and technology interface: Digital learning; Digital etiquette: Cyber bullying; Cyber pornography: Consumption, implications; Parental mediation of Digital Usag

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