ugc net Forensic Science syllabus

Subject: Forensic Science

Code No.: 82


Unit – I
  • Forensic Science: Definition, History & Development, Scope, Ethics in Forensic Science

  • Physical Evidence: Nature, Types, Search methods, Collection, Preservation, Packing & Forwarding of Physical & Trace evidence for forensic analyses, Chain of Custody

  • Crime Scene: Nature, Types, Preservation of Scene of Crime Criminal Investigations: Unnatural deaths, Criminal assaults, Sexual offences, Poisoning, Vehicular accidents

  • Courts: Types, powers and jurisdiction, Admissibility of evidence in Courts, Definition of Experts, Provisions in Cr.P.C.,1973 & Indian Evidence Act relating to experts & their reports; Court Procedures pertaining to Expert Testimony & Witness

  • Organization of Forensic Science Laboratories of Centre and State, NCRB and NICFS

  • Fundamental Rights: Right of Equality (Articles 14 to 18) and Right of Freedom (Articles 19 to 22) as per Constitution of India

  • Criminal Profiling: Profile of victim and culprit, its role in crime investigation, Lie detection (Polygraphy), Narco analysis, Brain mapping, scope and limitations

  • Concept of quality control management in Forensic institutions

Unit – II
  • Microscopy: Polarizing, Comparison, Stereoscopic, Fluorescent and Electron Microscopes

  • Spectrophotometry: UV, Visible, IR, Raman, Atomic absorption, Emission

  • Neutron Activation Analysis

  • X – rays and x-ray based techniques such as XRD, XRF

  • Mass Spectroscopy

  • Chromatographic Techniques: TLC, GLC, HPLC,HPTLC

  • Hyphenated Techniques: GC-MS, LC-MS, IR-MS and ICP-MS

  • Electrophoresis: High and Low voltage electrophoresis, Immunoelectrophoresis

  • Immunoassays: Principle, Types ,Techniques and applications

Unit – III
  • Detection and Identification of Blood stains

  • Determination of Species of Origin

  • Blood Group Systems

  • Techniques of Determination of Blood groups of Blood Stains

  • Detection of Seminal and other body fluids and their Blood Grouping, Red cells Enzymes, Serum Proteins of forensic significance

  • Disputed Paternity & Maternity

  • DNA: Structure, DNA as genetic marker, DNA Extraction and Profiling Techniques

  • DNA Phenotyping and RNA Profiling & their applications

  • Wild life Forensics: Wild life (Protection) Act,1972, Scope, Evidences and Identification

Unit – IV
  • Analysis of Ethyl alcohol in beverages , liquors, biological fluids and breath

  • Analysis of Methanol and Denaturants

  • Illicit liquors

  • Analysis of Chemicals in Trap Cases

  • Metabolism and Chemical examination of : Insecticides & Pesticides, Tranquillizers & Sedatives, Hypnotics Stimulants, Narcotics, Opiates, Drugs of abuse; Analyses of above and their Toxicity

  • Plant poisons

  • Metallic Poisons

  • Extraction, Isolation & Clean-up procedures, Identification of common poisons from viscera, tissues and body fluids

Unit – V
  • Fire arms: Types, Classification, Ammunition and their Compositions

  • Forensic examination of Firearms, Ammunition, Firearms’ projectiles (Bullets, Shots, Slug etc.), Shell case

  • Gunshot residues analysis

  • Concept of Velocity, Penetration, Dispersion, Ricochet, Accidental Discharge, Determination of Range in firearm cases

  • Examination of Country made firearms

  • Basics of Internal, External and Terminal Ballistics

  • Tool marks: Meaning, Types and Examination

  • Restoration of Erased Markings on Metal Surfaces

Unit – VI
  • Fire and Arson: Analyses of Petroleum Products and other incendiary materials

  • Explosives: Definition, Types and Analyses

  • Bombs: Country made bombs, Improvised Explosive Devices ( IEDs ) and their examination

  • Investigation in Explosion and Arson related cases

  • Photography: Types, application in criminal investigation & Forensic evidence examination

Unit – VII
  • Hair & Fibers: Nature, Types, Structure and Examination

  • Pollens and Diatoms: Their application in Forensic investigation

  • Dust & Soil: Nature, Types, Forensic Examination

  • Paint, Lacquer & Varnishes: Nature, composition and forensic examination

  • Glass: Composition, Types, Fractures, Examination

  • Cement, Mortar and Concrete: General Composition, Forensic Analysis

  • Computer Forensics: Introduction, Types of Computer crimes, Digital evidence- Seizure, Acquisition and Forensic examination

  • Mobile Phone Forensics

Unit – VIII
  • Fingerprints: History, Characteristics, Types, Classification, Preservation, Development, Lifting and Comparison, Examination of Chance Prints, Computerization of Fingerprints, AFIS

  • Track Marks: Foot Prints, Shoe Prints, Tire Marks, Their Preservation & Casting, Comparison, Skid marks. Gait pattern

  • Biometric Systems of Identification and its relevance

  • Voice Analysis: Introduction, Significance, Structure of Human Voice apparatus, Voice spectrography, Voice analysis, Legal aspects and limitations

Unit – IX
  • Documents: Definition, Types, Preliminary examination of documents

  • Reproduction of documents through photographic and mechanical means and their examination

  • Examination of Alterations such as Erasures, Obliterations & Additions

  • Indentations, Secret writings and Charred documents

  • Inks, Papers and their scientific examinations with modern methods

  • Age of documents

  • Examination of Typescripts, Printed matter including currency notes and lottery tickets. Mechanical impressions

  • Hand writings: Class and Individual characteristics of Handwritings, Factors affecting handwritings, Standard samples for comparison, Comparison of hand-written texts

  • Anonymous and disguised writings

  • Identification of hand writings, signatures, detection of forged signature and forgeries

  • Examination of Credit Cards and Similar materials

Unit –X
  • Modes & Manner of deaths, Sexual offences and its medicolegal importance, Amendments in law related to sexual offences

  • Post – mortem examination and Post – mortem changes, Estimation of time since death

  • Injuries & Wounds: Types, Medicolegal importance, Gunshot wounds

  • Determination of Species of Origin, Sex , Age, Stature, and individual identification through skeletal remains

  • Identification through Skull superimposition and facial reconstruction

  • Human dentition, Type of teeth, determination of Age, Bite marks

  • Forensic Entomology: Introduction, Insects of forensic importance, Insects on Carrion, Forensic applications